Q: How do cavern and cave
diving differ from diving in open water?
A: Caverns and caves are what experts call overhead environments -- environments in which divers do not have direct access to the surface.
Among the greatest safety factors in open-water diving is that a diver who is without air and separated from his or her buddies can still make an Emergency Swimming Ascent (ESA). Being in an overhead environment takes away this important safety factor.
Q: How do cavern and cave diving differ from one another?
A: Just as there are critical differences between diving in overhead environments and diving in open water, there are differences between cavern and cave diving. Among them:
Cavern divers keep the cave entrance
clearly within site at all times; cave divers do not and may, in fact, penetrate hundreds
or even thousands of feet beyond sight of daylight. Because cavern divers remain in close
proximity to the cave entrance, they are still theoretically capable of making Emergency
Swimming Ascents (ESAs). The only difference between cavern and open-water diving, in this
respect, is that a diver making an ESA from a cavern would be swimming out as well as up.
In contrast, cave divers have no possibility of making ESAs, and thus must take additional
steps to help protect themselves from the possibility of a loss of breathing gas.
While cave divers use highly specialized equipment, cavern divers use what is largely standard open-water gear (albeit with a few, minor modifications to reduce the possibility of entanglement, improve buoyancy control and body position, and make equipment more accessible).
Q: Why do you need special
training to cavern and cave dive?
A: Accident statistics suggest that, overwhelmingly, divers perish in underwater caverns and cave for just three reasons: lack of a properly used guideline; lack of sufficient reserve gas; and/or, diving beyond the safe operational limits of the breathing media used. Why do divers make these mistakes? Nine out of ten divers who die in natural overhead environments lack any formal training in cavern or cave diving; thus, they do not know why it is important to avoid these crucial errors or how to do so.
Q: What organizations offer Cavern and Cave Diver training?
A: Because of the theoretical ability to make Emergency Swimming Ascents, many experts consider cavern diving to be an extension of recreational diving. As such, it is possible to obtain Cavern Diver certification through organizations such as PADI and NAUI. Cave diving, in contrast, is what experts consider to be a form of technical diving.
By far the most popular and widely respected Cavern and Cave Diver certifications are those offered by the two non-profit organizations that specialize solely in cavern and cave diving. These are the National Speleological Society Cave Diving Section (NSS-CDS) and the National Association for Cave Diving (NACD). All of Ginnie Springs Outdoors' cave diving educators are members of the NSS-CDS. Most certify through NACD as well. Many can also offer PADI Cavern Diver certifications.
Q: How is Cavern and Cave Diver training structured?
A: Most training agencies that offer some form of Cavern/Cave Diver certification structure their courses to parallel those of the NSS-CDS. The CDS divides the path leading to full Cave Diver certification into four steps, each consisting of two days and four or more dives. These steps are:
It is possible to combine these courses in a variety of ways. For example:
Students who have little interest in
progressing beyond the Cavern Diver level, or who are unsure of their abilities (or simply
limited by time) often choose to begin by taking just a two-day Cavern Diver course.
Students who know with certainty that they wish to progress beyond the Cavern Diver level,
and who are confident in their ability to master the required knowledge and skills with
little difficulty, frequently elect to start by enrolling in a four-day program that
combines Cavern and Intro-to-Cave Diver training.
Ginnie Springs Outdoors' Cavern and Intro to Cave Diver course schedule makes it easy for students to either take these classes separately, or combine them.Although it is theoretically possible to progress from Cavern through full Cave Diver training in eight days, most instructors strongly discourage students from doing so. Eight non-stop days of Cavern and Cave Diver training are simply too intense and too demanding-- even for the most accomplished of divers. Attempting to take all four levels of Cave Diver training without breaks also deprives students of the opportunity to stop and absorb the vast body of knowledge and skills covered at each level. It further robs students of the opportunity to make additional experiential dives between levels-- something that most instructors recommend students do at some point in the learning process.
Note: Cavern and Intro to Cave Diver courses are available
directly through Ginnie Springs Outdoors. Students can arrange for Apprentice Cave Diver
and full Cave Diver training, on an individual basis, with members of Ginnie Springs'
instructional staff. Many of Ginnie Springs Outdoors' staff instructors also offer a
variety of technical diving courses, such as Technical Nitrox and Trimix.
Q: Why should I choose Ginnie Springs Outdoors for Cavern or
Cave Diver training?
A: There is most likely no such thing as a single instructor or facility who is right for every diver. Nevertheless, the fact remains that, each year, more people choose Ginnie Springs for Cavern and Cave Diver training than any other dive center on the planet. There has to be a reason why. Here are some of the factors our customers take into consideration when choosing Ginnie Springs Outdoors: